एम.व्ही.पी. समाजाचे

के. टी. एच. एम. महाविद्यालय

(के.आर.टी. कला, बी.एच. वाणिज्य, ए.एम. विज्ञान महाविद्यालय.)

MVP SAMAJ'S

K.T.H.M. COLLEGE, Nashik

(K.R.T. Arts, B.H. Commerce and A.M. Science College.)

Environmental Issues

4.1 Water Supply & Sewerage

Water is a key driver and is vital to development of Biodiversity, Agriculture, Humans as well as the Economy. With recent experiences across the world and in India, the water scarcity and security is emerging issues. The state of Maharashtra has also faced severe impact of the water scarcity in the recent past. Therefore water management is a crucial step of sustainable development and it also has been made an integral part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Unplanned urban growth and economic development has placed unprecedented pressures on natural resources especially on water. Increasing demand for the water in urban areas such as Nashik highlights the necessity of the overall water management.

4.1.1 Water supply and quality in the campus

There are about 12 water storage tanks within the campus, the capacities are shown below: 

  Water Storage Capacity at the campus

Sr. No. Department UGT capacity UGT capacity No. of times filled Water storage/ usage (m3/day)
1 Biotech Building 20,000.00 25,000.00 2.00 90.00
2 Office 50,000.00 20,000.00 2.00 140.00
3 Girls Hostel 50,000.00 40,000.00 2.00 180.00
4 Boys Hostel 20,000.00 20,000.00 2.00 80.00
5 Main Building 0.00 25,000.00 2.00 25,000.00
6 Annex. Building 0.00 20,000.00 2.00 40.00
       Total Water Usage 580.00

  Water supply requirements as per National Building Code, 2005 

Sr. No.     
       Department               
Total Population Water Supply for Buildings Other than Residences Water Supply for Residential Buildings (Hostels) Water requirement (m3/day)
1 Institute (staff) 422.00 45.00 0.00 25.38
2 Institute - students 9,028.00 45.00 0.00 405.00
3 Girls Hostel 320.00 0.00 135.00 43.20
4 Boys Hostel 120.00 0.00 135.00 20.25
5 Canteen 500.00 45.00 0.00 67.50
  Total population 10,390.00  Total water requirement 561.33

Note:  This requirement is inclusive of drinking water.

Based on the available data and benchmarking for water supply as per National Building Code (NBC), it can be seen that the campus receives about 18.67 m3 of excess fresh water every day.

  Drinking water quality in the campus

No. Locations DO (mg/l) BOD3 (mg/l) Chloride (mg/l) Total Hardness (mg/l) Total Alkalinity (mg/l) EC (mS/cm2) pH TS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) TSS (mg/l)
1 Boys Hostel Mess Tap 8 0.4 119.28 139.98 90 0.41 7.9 500 100 400
2 Boys Hostel Cooler 6 0.4 89.46 79.99 30 0.38 7.5 2800 1800 1000
3 Girls Hostel Under Ground Tank 6.4 1.2 82.36 82.36 30 0.45 0.45 500 0 500
4 Girls Hostel Cooler 7.2 1.2 88.04 93.32 80 80 7.6 1200 400 800
5 IMRT Well 4 2 90.88 93.32 11 0.38 7.9 300 0 300
6 Boat Club Well 7.6 1.6 186.02 339.96 31 1.76 7.6 2200 200 2000
7 River 5.2 0.4 97.98 126.65 0 0.45 8 2000 300 1700
8 Main Building Cooler 4.8 1.8 75.76 93.32 90 0.37 6.8 500 300 200
9 Annex II Under Ground Tank 6.8 0.8 180.34 386.65 100 1.66 7.5 1900 500 1400
10 Annex I Over Head Tank 6.4 0.7 96.56 83.32 20 1.4 7.8 1700 400 1300
11 Library Open Tap 6 0.8 71 79.99 80 0.37 7.6 4400 600 3800
12 Canteen Drinking Water Tap 2.4 0.9 93.72 99.99 10 0.38 7.7 300 200 100
Drinking water standards as per IS 10500:2012 - acceptable limits --- --- 250 200 200 --- 6.5 - 8.5 --- 500 ---

Note:

  • All result values are in mg/l, except pH.
  • These results are not reproducible; the results are subject to water storage & supply conditions on the site.

  MPN count of Drinking water quality in the campus

Sample 10 ml 1 ml 0.1 ml MPN index Colony count Potability
Annex II underground tank 5 5 5 2400 20 Non- Potable
Girls hostel cooler 5 5 1 350 15 Non- Potable
Boat club water 5 5 5 2400 25 Non- Potable
River water sample 5 5 5 2400 30 Non- Potable
Annex I Over head tank 5 5 5 2400 18 Non- Potable
Main Building Cooler 1 0 0 0 2 Potable
IMRT well sample 4 1 1 14 10 Non- Potable
Boys hostel cooler 1 0 0 2 5 Potable
Canteen drinking water 0 0 0 0 1 Potable
Boys hostel mess 4 1 0 17 8 Non- Potable
Girls hostel underground tank 0 0 0 0 0 Potable
Library open tank 1 0 0 2 2 Potable

It is informed that water supply is taken either from Nashik Municipal Corporation or water is extracted from 2 dug wells within the campus. However due to probable mixing of both the water sources the quality of fresh water has been deteriorated. Therefore it is necessary to have a fresh water treatment system before use including disinfection. Similarly, periodical cleaning of water tanks is very essential. Table No.5 and Table No. 6 suggest that many of the locations the quality of water is NON POTABLE. Therefore immediate actions are required.

4.1.2 Rain water harvesting potential of the campus

The campus buildings possess large terrace areas and paved as well as non paved areas. Currently, none of the buildings have Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) System implemented. The campus has huge potential for RWH (Table No. 7). However, due to close proximity of the river Godawari, the ground water table may be very high and therefore it is necessary to undertake detailed Hydrogeology Survey and then the RWH system should be implemented.

 

The campus buildings possess large terrace areas and paved as well as non paved areas. Currently, none of the buildings have Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) System implemented. The campus has huge potential for RWH (Table No. 7). However, due to close proximity of the river Godawari, the ground water table may be very high and therefore it is necessary to undertake detailed Hydrogeology Survey and then the RWH system should be implemented.

Figure 2: Schematics of ground water recharge and storage

  Rain Water Harvesting potential of the campus

Sr. No.        Area Type         Roof top area (sq.m.) Rainfall (m) Total Rainfall volume (cu. M.) Avg. Rainfall volume (cu. M.) / day count
1 Ladies Hostel 1 163.76 0.62 96.45 5.79
2 Ladies Hostel 2 165.12 0.62 97.26 5.84
3 Ladies Hostel 3 164.67 0.62 96.99 5.82
4 Principal Quarter 281.42 0.62 165.76 9.95
5 IT centre -  Environment dept 1,039.13 0.62 612.05 36.72
6 Press Building 313.85 0.62 184.86 11.09
7 PG + extension 1,451.09 0.62 854.69 51.28
8 KTHM main building + library 2,759.38 0.62 1,625.27 97.52
9 Boys Hostel 669.74 0.62 394.48 23.67
Total rain fall volume   3,733.33 224.00

Note: Avg. Annual Rainfall of 620mm at Nashik city is considered for the calculations

4.1.3 Sewerage Management

Based on the water consumption data and considering about 90% of the water supplied is converted in to the waste water either through the washrooms, chemical laboratories, etc. the campus generated about 522.00 m3 of waste water every day.

It was observed that there is no separate drainage system for collecting and transporting sewage and liquids from chemical laboratories. Currently, a combined drainage systems is placed which carries all the liquid effluent to a sewerage system to the north provided by the Nashik Municipal Corporation.

4.2 Noise Environment

Noise pollution is one of the major environmental issues in India today and most of us are unaware of the hazards it can cause. In India, we all are subjected to some form of loud noises for a considerable amount of time on daily basis as well across the year based on the festive season such as Ganesh Festival, Diwali and others.

Unwarranted sounds such as honking, other vehicular noise, the loudspeakers and not to forget about household noise such as television and music system sounds on daily basis are inevitable. In our country it’s a major perception that happiness can only be expressed by creating loud noises.

Table No. 8 shows implications of Noise on Human Body. Exposure to high levels of noise may cause permanent hearing loss. The repeated exposures to loud noise can lead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing loss. Furthermore, it may create physical and psychological stress, reduce productivity, and interfere with communication and concentration. The effects of noise induced hearing loss can be profound & can be limiting your ability to hear high frequency sounds, understand speech, and seriously impairing your ability to communicate.

  Considerable Implications of Noise on the Human Body

Sr. No. Noise Levels in dB Health Hazards
1 80 Annoying
2 90 Hearing Damage
3 95 Very Annoying
4 110 Stimulation of Skin
5 120 Pain Threshold
6 130 – 135 Dizziness , Vomiting
7 140 Pain in Ear
8 150 Significant change in Heart Pulse

 

  Noise monitoring observations

 

Sr. No. Location Minimum Noise Levels dB (A) Maximum Noise Levels dB (A) Ambient Air Quality Standards
in respect of Noise dB (A),
in accordance with Noise
Pollution (Regulation and Control)
amendment rules, 2000 Silent Zone
1 Spot-Annex 1 Classroom -1 KA111 58.3 72.3 50
2 Spot-Annex 1 Classroom -2KA214 57.6 71.4 50
3 Library (Outside) 52.0 57.7 50
4 Library (Inside) 56.5 66.1 50
5 Back Gate 53.2 69.2 50
6 Back Gate Parking 59.0 68.3 50
7 Main Building Porch 54.5 71.1 50
8 Annexe-2 64 72 50
9 Abhinav School Corner 56.3 73.6 50
10 Boat Club 50.0 63.0 50
11 Zoology Classroom 50.6 69.5 50
12 Boy’s Hostel 50.6 69.5 50

Note:

  • The readings were taken during the day time.   2. Day time means 06:00 am to 10:00 pm
  • Silent zone comprises of not less than 100 meters around educational institutes
     

The observations show that all the locations monitored show high level of noise pollution. The causes of noise pollution may be proximity of the main road with high traffic volumes, other buildings such as Abhinav school where variety of noisy activities are conducted the school building and other areas experience high noise levels (max. noise levels observed) as compared to the silent zone standards (day time requirements).
 

4.3 Plant diversity:

Various manmade activities have wide range of impacts on the surrounding ecosphere, both negative as well as positive. Over the years, KTHM College has undertaken various activities like plantation and beautification of campus through various drives. The campus has good plantations along with well-maintained medicinal plants’ garden; and landscaping. It’s a positive step to reduce its environmental impact. This section provides a detailed list of plant species observed within the campus.

The campus attempts to maintain ecofriendly atmosphere on the campus; the number and variety of plant species helps to maintain eco-friendly ambience. Further, to create eco-friendly awareness among the students college arranges special programmes through which the students get clear idea and importance of trees in life. There are more than 60 perennial plant species have been observed.  

Though, the college campus represents good plant diversity, there is large scope to plant more trees, particularly along the fence line of main road where high to very high traffic was noticed.

 

  List of plant species observed in the campus during the field visit

Sr. No. Botanical Name Local Name Habit Family
1 Albizia saman Rain tree Tree Mimosaceae
2 Annona squamosa Sitaphal Shrub Annonaceae
3 Azadirachta indica Neem Tree Meliaceae
4 Canna indica Canna Herb Cannaceae
5 Cocos nucifera Coconut Palm Arecaceae
6 Delonix regia Gulmohor Tree Caesalpiniaceae
7 Duranta erecta Duranta Shrub Verbanaceae
8 Erythrina indica Pangara Tree Fabaceae
9 Ficus benjamina Ficus Tree Moraceae
10 Ficus elastica Rubber tree Tree Moraceae
11 Ficus racemosa Umbar Tree Moraceae
12 Leucaena latisiliqua Subabhul Tree Mimosaceae
13 Mangifera indica Mango Tree Anacardiaceae
14 Millingtonia hortensis Buch Tree Bignoniaceae
15 Polyalthia longifolia Ashok-Khota Tree Annonaceae
16 Pseudocalymma alliaceum Lasunvel Climber Bignoniaceae
17 Santalum albam Sandalwood Tree Santalaceae
18 Terminalia catappa Jangli Badam Tree Combretaceae
19 Terminalia muelleri Australian Almond Tree Combretaceae
20 Hibiscus sp. Jaswand Shrub Malvaceae
21 Bougainvillea sp.   vine Nyctaginaceae
22 Eucalyptus sp. Nilgiri Tree Myrtaceae
23 Bauhinia sp. Kanchan Tree Fabaceae
24 Bamboo sp. Bamboo Grass Poaceae
25 Tectona grandis Sagwan Tree Lamiaceae
26 Banana sp. Kela Tree Musaceae
27 Peltophorum pterocarpum Sonmohor Tree Caesalpiniaceae
28 Areca sp. Supari Palm Arecaceae
29 Carica papaya Papaya Tree Caricaceae
30 Psidium guajava Peru Tree Myrtaceae
31 Casuarina equisetifolia Suru Pine Casuarinaceae
32 Araucaria sp. Chirstmas Tree Pine Araucariaceae
33 Alstonia scholaris Saptaparni Tree Apocynaceae
34 Magnolia champaca Chafa Tree Magnoliaceae
35 Nerium oleander Kanher Shrub Apocynaceae
36 Caesalpinia pulcherima carnea Shankasur Small tree Caesalpiniaceae
37 Thespesia populnea Bhend Tree Malvaceae
38 Ricinus communis Erand Herb Euphorbiaceae
39 Kigelia africana Bramha Dand Tree Bignoniaceae
40 Grevillea robust Silver oak Tree  Proteaceae
41 Calotropis gigantea Rui Shrub Apocynaceae
42 Tabernaemontana sp. Tagar shrub Apocynaceae
43 Murraya koenigii Curry Leaf tree Tree Rutaceae

 

  List of plant species in the campus provided by Botany Department

Sr. No. Botanical name of the plant Local Name Family
1 Abelomoschus hibiscus L Kasturi Bhendi Malvaceae
2 Abitulon indicum Mudra Malvaceae
3 Acacia arabica willd Babhul Mimosaceae
4 Acacia catechu Prain Khair Mimosaceae
5 Acacia concinna D.C. Shikekai Mimosaceae
6 Achyranthus aspera L. Aghada Amaranthaceae
7 Acorus calamus L Vekhand Araceae
8 Adansonia digitata L. Gorakh Chinch Bombacaceae
9 Adhatoda vasica Nees. Adulsa Acanthaceae
10 Adiantum lunaliatum Bum. Hanspadi Polypodiaceae
11 Aegle marmelos Corr. Bel Rutaceae
12 Agave americana L. Ghaypat Amaryllidaceae
13 Allum sativum L. Lasun Liliaceae
14 Aloe vera L. Korphad Liliaceae
15 Annona squamosa L. Sitaphal Annonaceae
16 Anthocephalus cadamba Phgn. Kadamb Rubiaceae
17 Asparagus racemosus Willd Shatavari Liliacea
18 Barleria prionitis Linn  Vajradanti Acanthaceae
19 Boerhaevia diffusa L. Punarnava Nyctaginaceae
20 Bryophyllum calcynum Kurn. Panphuti Crassulaceae
21 Butea frondosa  Palasa Fabaceae
22 Caesalpinia bonducella Sagargota Caesalpiniaceae
23 Calotropis gigantea Rui Mothi Asclepiadaceae
24 Calotropis procera Rui Asclepiadaceae
25 Canna indica Kardal Cannaceae
26 Cassia fistula Bahava Caesalpiniaceae
27 Celastrus paniculata Willd. Maalkaanguni Celastraceae
28 Centella asiatica L. Braambhi Umbelliferae
29 Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blum Daalchini Lauraceae
30 Citrus limoni L. Nimbu Rutaceae
31  Clitorea terntea L. Gokarna Fabaceae
32 Crinum asiaticum L. Nag Davana Amaryllidaceae
33 Curcuma longa L. Halad Scitaminae
34 Cymbopogon citratus Gavati Chaha Poaceae
35 Embelia ribes Wavding Myrsinaceae
36 Feronia limonia Kavath Rutaceae
37 Ficus racemosa Umbar Moraceae
38 Garcinia indica Kokam Tree Guttiferae
39 Gardenia lucida Roxb Dikamali Rubiaceae
40 Helecteres isora L. Muradsheng Sterculiaceae
41 Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Jaswand Malvaceae
42 Hibiscus sabdarifa L. Laal Ambadi Malvaceae
43 Hiptage benghalensis Madhumalati Malpighiaceae
44 Jatropha carcass Mogali Erand Euphorbiaceae
45 Michelia champaca L. Sonchafa Magnoliaceae
46 Mimosa pudica Laajaalu Mimosaceae
47 Morus alba L. Tuti Moraceae
48 Nelumbo nucifera Kamal Nymphaeaceae
49 Ocimum sanctum Tulas Lamiaceae
50 Oxalis corniculata Ambushi Oxalidaceae
51 Phyllanthus emblica Avala Euphorbiaceae
52 Phyllantuhs distichus Ray Avala Euphorbiaceae
53 Piper betel L. Nagvel Piperaceae
54 Plumbago zeylanica L. Chitrak Plumbaginaceae
55 Plumeria rubra L Pandhara Chafa Apocynaceae
56 Pongamea pinnata Prer. Karanj Fabaceae
57 Rauwolfia tetraphylla Bet. Wild Snake root Apocynaceae
58 Ruta graveolens L Satab Rutaceae
59 Santalum album L. Chandan Santalaceae
60 Sapindus laurifolius L. Ritha Sapindaceae
61 Solanum indicum L. Dorli Solanaceae
62 Spilanthes acmella Mur. Akkal Kadha Asteraceae
63 Syzigium cumini L. Jambool Myrtaceae
64 Terminalia arjuna Arjun Combretaceae
65 Tinospora cordifolia Mires. Gulvel Menispermaceae
66 Withania somnifera Dunal. Ashwagandha Solanaceae
67 Zingiber officinale Rox Aale Scitaminae

 

  List of bird species observed in the campus

Sr. No. Scientific Name Common Name
1 Milvus migrans Black kite
2 Passer domesticus House sparrow
3 Dicrurus macrocercus Black Drongo
4 Corvus splendens Common Crow
5 Columba livia Rock pigeon
6 Halcyon smyrnensis white-throated kingfisher
7 Acridotheres tristis common myna
8 Merops orientalis green bee-eater
9 Psittacula krameri rose-ringed parakeet
10 Turdoides caudata common babbler
11 Centropus sinensis crow pheasant

 

4.4 Waste Management

The committee constituted by the Union Ministry of Urban Development (1998 - 2000) had reported that “Solid Waste Management has been one of the neglected areas of urban management activities in India. By and large, in cities and towns; hardly 50% of the solid waste generated is collected, transported and disposed off, giving rise to unhygienic conditions and diseases, especially amongst the urban poor who constitute about 35% of the urban population.” Even after 15 years of this report, the solid waste management systems in India are still the same.

World Health Organization (WHO) has observed that 22 types of diseases can be prevented/ controlled in India by improving Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) system. The Planning Commission Task Force (2014) identifies that “principal reasons for the prevailing unhygienic conditions in our cities is the casual attitude of the citizens as well as the municipal authorities towards managing solid waste, lack of priority to this essential service, inadequate and inappropriate institutional structure, lack of technical know how and paucity of financial resources”.

4.4.1 Municipal Solid Waste

Based on the total population of the campus the Municipal Solid Waste is calculated. Table no.13 shows total quantity of MSW generated on the campus per day.

  MSW generated on the campus per day

Sr. No. Area Type Expected population Organic Waste (kg)/day Dry waste (kg)/day
1 Girls Hostel 320.00 64.20 51.80
2 Boys Hostel 120.00 30.13 14.38
3 Canteen 500.00 82.50 57.50
4 All Campus (Students) 9,028.00 345.00 235.00
5 All Campus (Staff) 422 25.02 16.38
  Total Population 10,390.00 0.00 0.00
      546.83 370.05
    Total Waste (kg)/day 921.89

Observations:

  • The campus has huge potential for incorporating biogas plant of composting for organic / biodegradable wastes.
  • Organic waste from boy’s hostel is given to a piggery which is a good practice.
  • The campus has small pilot scale composting plant viz. Girls hostel (intermittently functional), however a common biogas plant if installed, then cooking gas can be obtained for one of the hostel mess, which in turn will give long term savings on the cooking fuel.

4.4.2 E - Waste

It was observed that the campus has storage a lot of E-waste for last 4 - 5 years which has piled up. It will be useful to discard the e-waste. Table No. 14 shows the approximate quantities that may be disposed off. It is informed that generally a tender procedure is implemented for any scrap material in this case e-waste, it is advised that these e-waste should be disposed off  through an authorised e-waste recycler/ vendor duly authorised by Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB).

  E-waste for disposal

Sr. No. Type of Waste Available To be discarded (over  last 5 years) (assumed) Total nos. items to be discarded Total weight
(kg)
1 Desktop Computers 506.00 50.60 50.60 500.94
2 Projectors 22.00 2.20 2.20 10.34
3 Printers 195.00 19.50 19.50 126.75
4 Photocopy Machines 6.00 1.00 1.00 53.00
5 Keyboards 506.00 50.60 50.60 50.60
6 Mouse 506.00 50.60 50.60 2.53
      Total e-waste (kg) 744.16

Other Observations:

  • No segregation of the common garbage in the campus.
  • Most of the times the horticulture waste and other common garbage from the campus is burnt near the parking lot which pose a threat to the environment and the human health.
  • The segregated waste from canteen is handed over to the NMC.
  • Chemical / other hazardous waste (liquid & solid) needs to be disposed as per government norms.
  • Recyclables viz. paper, metal scrap etc. is disposed off / sold out to scrap dealers a tender procedure, however no information is available on the recyclables.

4.5 Air Environment

Air pollution has also become a critical issue in India. Most of the urban conglomerations in India are highly polluted with recent case of Delhi air pollution. In 2014, the World Health Organisation (WHO) had assessed 1,622 cities worldwide for PM2.5 and found that 13 of the 20 cities in India that WHO assessed are with the most polluted air.  

The air pollution is mainly caused by vehicle emissions, fuel, industrial activities and coal fired power plants. The WHO further suggests that the vast majority of Indians breathe unsafe air. Air pollution causes asthma which is now soaring, even amongst the children. PM2.5 contributes to cancer and it kills by triggering heart attacks and strokes.  

 Air quality in the academic institute is very important for health of the students, faculty and staff of the institute. The air pollution sources in the college campus are wind storm, pollen grains, natural dust, vehicular emissions, generators, fires and laboratory fumes etc. All the pollutants were measured by the CPCB installed continuous air monitoring station. The air pollutants monitored on regular basis are Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Repairable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) etc.
The chief sources of air pollution in the study area are mainly due to continuous vehicular activities and domestic firewood burning, fuel burning etc and natural dust. The major pollutants released in the atmosphere will be PM10, PM2.5. SO2 NOx and CO etc. All the air quality parameters are within standard limits of CPCB, New Delhi, suggesting ambient air quality at K.T.H.M College campus. College has green campus of 39 acres; efforts have been made on to planting more trees on the peripheral boundary of the campus through NSS, NCC students, senior students, teaching and nonteaching staff in college. Hence, the greenery around the institute helps to neutralize whatever carbon and its byproducts generated. The campus has total 67plant species which includes trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers.

Figure 3: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations

 


Legends:

  1.   Campus Boundary
  2.   Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Location – which covers an area on 2 km

Observations:

  • The campus adjoins one of the busy road network in Nashik as well as has close proximity to the school and other commercial establishments
  • The campus population (student, staff and others) is very high, which brings in more than 2000 vehicles (including two wheelers and four wheelers) which also contribute to air pollution.
  • Table no. 15 shows air pollution levels within and around the campus. This sampling was carried out on different dates through two weeks time.
  • The observations show all the parameters in the campus are within the NAAQ Standards.

  Ambient Air Quality Observations

  SO2 NO2 PM10 PM2.5 CO Ozone Temp Relative Humidity
  ug/m3 ug/m3 ug/m3 ug/m3 mg/m3 ug/m3 degree C %
21/02/2017 8.27 45.68 74.04 50.92 1.21 93.88 26.46 46.68
22/02/2017 4.19 46.57 70.76 49.73 0.87 76.40 24.47 50.40
23/02/2017 3.32 52.46 69.17 34.77 0.81 60.27 24.05 59.10
NAAQ Standards 16.19 55.61 62.85 42.25 1.63 55.92 24.94 35.70
  ≤ 80 ≤ 80 ≤ 100 ≤ 60 ≤04 ≤ 180 --- ---

Note:

  • NAAQ standard - National Ambient Air Quality standard.

Figure 4: 24 hourly variation of air pollutants

 
From the graph and the table above, it can be concluded that the study conducted at K.T.H.M College for air quality shows no instances where pollutants has exceeded the prescribed standards by CPCB.
 

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